Atp assays

ATP is the energy source of all living cells và is involved in many vital biochemical reactions. When cells die, they stop synthesizing ATPhường & the existing ATP. pool is quickly degraded. Therefore, ATP is widely accepted as a marker of viable cells. Higher ATPhường concentration indicates higher number of living cells.

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ATP assays are procedures that can measure cell viability based on detection of ATP.. All living cells, including bacteria, can be detected with ATP assays. Several detection methods can be used, such as colorimetric, fluorescent & bioluminescent. Most researchers choose bioluminescent ATPhường assays khổng lồ measure cell viability due to lớn higher sensitivity, simple và homogeneous protocol, & fast results.


Data generated using the Water-Glo™ System.

In early ATP assays, the luciferase reaction released a brief “flash” of light that lasted only seconds. Detection of such a short signal required a luminometer with automatic dispensing capabilities, either a single-tube or multiwell plate reader.

To improve sầu the experimental workflow và reduce variability of assay results, scientists derived a stable khung of recombinant luciferase (Ultra-Glo™ rLuciferase) that is not affected by svào detergents used for lysing cells và can co-exist with ATPase inhibitors, which stabilize ATPhường once released from lysed cells. The enhanced stability và flexibility of Ultra-Glo™ rLuciferase enabled development of ATPhường. assays with a luminescent signal that “glows” for up to hours compared to lớn the historical “flash” assays that lasts only seconds.

Glow-type ATP. assays offer researchers a more flexible workflow, enabling a significantly larger number of samples khổng lồ be assessed in an experiment, và vị not require automatic dispensers for any protocol steps.

The first step in choosing an ATP assay is understanding what you are using it for. ATPhường has many functions in the cell & cellular environment. Therefore, ATPhường assays have a wide range of applications. In retìm kiếm labs, they are commonly used in cell culture experiments to estimate the number of viable cells. This information can answer questions about cell growth, or assess toxiđô thị of drugs or viruses.

Extracellular ATPhường released from dying cells can act as a damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP), & specialized ATP assays can be used for applications such as measuring immunogenic cell death. Outside of basic biomedical retìm kiếm, ATPhường assays are also used lớn determine the presence of bacterial contamination in water samples, food products & cosmetics.

Besides understanding the intended use, a variety of factors will influence which ATPhường assay to lớn choose. These include the nature of the sample, the number of samples being tested, the required sensitivity, và availability of automated liquid handlers & detection instruments. In addition, researchers performing high-throughput screening or using 3D cell culture will want to choose an assay that has been tested & optimized for these applications.

Choosing an ATP assay can be challenging due to the large number of products available. To tư vấn the broad applications of ATP assays, we have developed a portfolio of luminescent ATPhường. assays with distinct formulations & recommended protocols optimized for each application. See the table below to lớn find an assay that would work best for your application.

Need help choosing the right assay for your needs? Our Technical Support Teamwould be happy to lớn guide you!

CellTiter-Glo® Luminescent Cell Viability Assay Monolayer/suspension cell culture The original gold standard assay for HTS, lot release testing và general research applications. Provided as lyophilized substrate và buffer components, prepared into lớn a detection reagent just prior khổng lồ use. Strong >5 hours
CellTiter-Glo® 3D Cell Viability Assay 3 chiều cell culture Provided as a single reagent with high detergent concentration, specifically optimized for effective cell membrane lysis in 3 chiều microtissues.

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Very strong >3 hours
RealTime-Glo™ Extracellular ATPhường Assay Monolayer/suspension, 3D cell cultures Live-cell kinetic assay khổng lồ detect ATPhường released from dying cells. Non-lytic assay Continuous luminescent monitoring for up to lớn 24 hours
Viral ToxGlo™ Assay Viral-infected monolayer/suspension cell culture Protocol optimized to lớn determine viral-induced cytopathic effect on host cells in vitro. Strong >5 hours
BacTiter-Glo™ Microbial Cell Viability Assay Bacterial cells in culture medium Measures the number of viable bacterial cells. Designed for difficult-to-lyse bacterial samples. Can be used for single sample analysis or high-throughput applications. Very strong >30 minutes
Water-Glo™ Microbial Water Testing Kit Water samples Measures the amount of biomass in complex aqueous samples, such as wastewater, seawater & freshwater. Very svào (separate lysis & detection steps) 3 minutes
ENLITEN® ATP. Assay System Foodstuffs, beverages, woodpulp, cosmetics, etc. Using flash chemistry, optimize your own method to detect ATPhường in cells, bacteria, yeasts, fungi & other microorganisms in various sample types. Lysis reagent not included Seconds

Learn how the original CellTiter-Glo® Luminescent Cell Viability Assaywas reformulated for use with 3D cell cultures.
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